BuyQualityEssays.com – ORDER 100% ANSWERED QUESTION…So far, we have only examined HW principles in genes consisting of two alleles. We can extend the HW equations to more than two alleles, although the math can get confusing quickly.

So far, we have only examined HW principles in genes consisting of two alleles. We can extend the HW equations to more than two alleles, although the math can get confusing quickly. However, it isn’t much more difficult to calculate expected frequencies with three alleles. Our blood type activity provides an excellent example as the ABO type is controlled by three alleles: IA, IB, and i.

 
With three alleles: p + q + r = 1 and thus,
(p + q + r)(p + q + r) = p2 + 2pq + 2pr + q2 + 2qr + r2 = 1 where
p2 = expected frequency of IAIA genotype q2 = expected frequency of IBIB genotype r2 = expected frequency of ii genotype
 
2pq = expected frequency of IAIB heterozygotes 2pr = expected frequency of IAi heterozygotes 2qr = expected frequency of IBi heterozygotes
 
Suppose you go out and obtain blood genotypes from 1000 people throughout NYC and obtain the following results:
 

Genotype
Count
Genotype

 
 
frequency

IAIA
210
0.21

IBIB
75
0.075

ii
330
0.33

 
 
 

IAIB
143
0.143

IAi
86
0.086

IBi
156
0.156

 
Perform a chi-square analysis to determine if these results are consistent with HW expectations. In this case, because we are dealing with three alleles we will need to use 2 degrees of freedom. 
At P= 0.05 the critical chi-square value is 5.991
. Remember, to solve HW problems you must first calculate allele frequencies (p, q and r in this case) and use the allele frequencies to calculate expected genotype frequencies under HW. 
 
 
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