Diagnosis assessment and evaluation

First question: 
When clinicians conduct an interview with a person, we learn not only about a person’s symptoms, but also about the cultural context in which the symptoms are experienced.  In the story, The Yellow Wallpaper, we read a first-person narrative of a young woman. Read The Yellow Wallpaper (link below and pdf available on the Content Tab). Write a post considering the following questions:
What information does the narrator provide about her family history, her personal history, her current living situation, her socioeconomic status, her symptoms, and her cultural milieu? What aspects of ‘culture’ do we consider when framing her story? How may her story have been different if she were living in a different culture? 
Link: The Yellow Wall-paper

Second question:
Clinicians rely on well crafted assessment tools that are reliable and valid. One principle of psychometrics that make these tools reliable and valid is that a tool must consistently and accurately measure what it is supposed to measure among the population for whom it was intended. Sometimes, tools are not found to have adequate psychometric properties. This means that the tool is not reliable or not valid for use among people with a particular condition (or at all). Read the article on Discredited Assessments for ADHD (Contents tab).
What are some common characteristics of the assessments that are not considered valid or reliable for use among populations with ADHD? Clinicians are obligated by law and by ethical and practice standards to use only valid and reliable tools, but there is not complete consensus among all clinicians about which tools are reliable and valid. What do you think is the reason for this disagreement about the validity and reliability of some assessments? How does this impact the diagnoses (and by extension the care) provided for patients of these dissenting clinicians? 
Link: Discredited Assessments and treatment

Third question:
In the following brief case, critique using the information provided in Chapter 7.  Specifically, identify issues related to the relationship between the examiner and the examinee, expectancy effects, reinforcing responses, and other variables that might affect test scores.  Offer an alternative procedure that would minimize test administration effects on test scores.  Make sure to provide citations.
 
 

Chapter 7 CASE STUDY
 
Dr. Frakes, a clinical psychologist, was asked to administer intelligence tests to children in a local public school district.  The purpose of the testing was to identify children in grades 1-5 whose intelligence test scores qualified them for the districts talented and gifted (TAG) program.
The school district directed Dr. Frakes to administer a newly-developed individual test of childrens intelligence, called the Childrens Experimental Aptitude Test (CEAT).  Because the test was so new, Dr. Frakes had never actually seen it.  The school district paid for Dr. Frakes to attend a 6-hour training workshop on the CEAT the weekend before the testing was to take place.  Dr. Frakes attended the training workshop and was relieved to discover that the CEAT was very similar to a childrens intelligence test with which he was familiar.  As part of the training, Dr. Frakes gave one practice administration of the CEAT to another workshop participant.
Dr Frakes went to the testing center, which was located in an elementary school classroom.  As Dr. Frakes was entering the school, he saw the Dean of the college where he taught part-time (and hoped to teach full-time in the future) walking into the school holding a young boys hand.   The Dean approached Dr. Frakes and introduced him to nine-year-old Howie, the Dean s son.  Howie is the brightest student in his class, said the Dean, and I know hes going to ace this IQ test of yours!  
               Howie was the third student Dr. Frakes tested that morning.  When Howie entered the classroom, Dr. Frakes made a special attempt to chat with him and make him feel comfortable.  However, Howie seemed very uninterested in being tested.  He yawned and looked away several times when Dr. Frakes was explaining what would happen during the testing session.  Then the session began.
Several of the CEAT subtests were timed; the test manual specified exactly how much time should be given to items on these subtests.  However, because Dr. Frakes was still unfamiliar with the test, he had to consult the manual several times to remind himself of the amount of time Howie should receive to answer the items.  Therefore, Howie completed a few of tests in the allotted amount of time, but had considerably more than the allotted time on several other tests.  
Because Dr. Frakes knew that Howie was considered one of the brightest children in his second-grade class, he was surprised when the boy answered relatively easy items incorrectly or when he said he did not know the answer to an easy item.  For example, one CEAT subtest required the examinee to identify the most important part missing from a picture of a common object.  One picture showed a bicycle with several spokes missing from the rear wheel.  Howie stared at the picture for about 20 seconds and then said he could not see anything missing from it.  Dr. Frakes commented, This one is a little toughlook really closely at the wheels on the bicycle.  What is missing?  Howie was then able to give the correct answer.
               As he was testing Howie, Dr. Frakes became increasingly certain the boy would qualify for the TAG program.  Furthermore, he thought the program would be good for Howies motivation level.  Dr. Frakes had these thoughts in mind when he scored the test and wrote up the results in the summary report.

Book: Psychological Testinng: Principles, Applications, and Issuess. Kaplan & Saccuzz0 (2021)

Please answer the questions seperatly as different assignments. The first link is to question 1, second link to question 2 and the 3rd question please look up the book and find chapter 7.