All the questions below have two parts: First, place the argument into ONE of the forms discussed in the reading—modus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism, disjunctive syllogism, dilemma, affirming the consequent, denying the antecedent, affirming the disjunct. Then, specify what each substitution instance is for each variable.
1. (1 pt.) Either Jane went home already or she stayed late and worked. She didn’t drive home. She must have stayed late and worked.
2. (1 pt.) ESP is real! ESP is real if psychics make reliable predictions, and they do.
3. (1 pt.) ESP is real if psychics make reliable predictions, and we know ESP is real. So psychics must make reliable predictions.
4. (1 pt.) It seems clear—God exists or else evolutionary scientists are right. And it’s indisputable that evolutionary scientists are right. God doesn’t exist.
5. (1 pt.) If it rains, Alex is gonna get wet. If Alex gets wet, he’ll be upset. Therefore, if it rains, Alex will be upset.
6. (1 pt.) Ask a question about A) the reading itself OR B) how to apply the ideas from the reading to everyday life.
7. (2 pts.) Create a chain argument by adding TWO valid argument forms together—the conclusion of one should provide one of the premises of the other. State it in normal language and then translate the simple and complex claims into symbolic propositional logic.
– For example, here’s a modus ponens combined with a disjunctive syllogism: “If life is cruel, then we should not deal with reality. Life is cruel. So we shouldn’t deal with reality. Either we should deal with reality or drugs should be legalized. So it stands to reason that drugs should be legalized.”
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