1). Language use can vary depending on several factors including
individual, societal, and situational. Indicate how the concepts
code switching and accommodation fit into these factors; define
them briefly in your own words and indicate whether they are
individual, societal or situational, or whether more than one
factor is involved, explaining why you feel this. Be sure to
clearly define each of these concepts, giving an example of each
and distinguishing the concepts from each other in your
response. Your response to this question should not exceed
three-quarters of a page.
2). Consider methodological issues of defining social groups’
and individuals’ identity categories like class membership. Are
speakers’ language varieties constant, or do they vary, and if
so, what might cause them to vary in the variety they speak?
What are the relative merits of social networks vs. more
traditional methods of defining speech communities? What are
some constraints of these approaches? Briefly describe the main
findings of the most important studies on sociolinguistic
variation described in chapters 6-8 of Wardhaugh. Your response
to this question should not exceed 2 pages.
3). Define the concepts prestige, variety, vernacular,
hypercorrection, and over-reporting vs. under-reporting, giving
an example of each and indicating how the gender difference
studies presented in Coates chapters 4 & 6-8 illustrate these
concepts. What are the main findings of these studies on gender
in conversation and how do minimal responses, hedges, tag
questions and turn-taking reflect these gender differences? (Be
sure to also define these terms.) Your response to this question
should not exceed 1.5 pages.
-theoretical concepts from the course literature: show that
you have read and understand the concepts covered in the
literature and can critically relate them in your response;
make sure you give concrete examples and explanations of the
concepts you take up.
-argumentation: clearly address the topic you choose,
connecting your arguments to each other and to the topic you
address; make sure you explain any claims you make clearly.
-language: correct grammar, spelling and lexical choice,
coherent and well-organized responses with appropriate use of
references to the course literature in academic English.
LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS & SOURCING
It is important that your essay is written in academic English.
Avoid personal reflections and try to be objective in your
exposition. You should also avoid the use of contractions (e.g.
didn’t) and make sure to use complete sentences which all have
a subject and a finite verb. (For example, the following is not
a complete sentence (indicated with a *): Apples are good for
the health. *Especially for the digestive system.) Make use of
coherence markers, linking the concepts you present to each
other and to the main essay topic and use appropriate
paragraphing and punctuation.
You should define the concepts in your own words rather than
directly quoting from the literature. If, however, you
paraphrase from the literature, be sure to indicate the
reference by indicating the relevant pages (or website) for this
information. e.g. Apples are fruits (Author’s surname Year: page
numbers, i.e. Wardhaugh & Fuller 2015: 38). Remember that a
failure to indicate the sources of your claims, if drawn from
secondary sources, constitutes plagiarism. At the end of your
essay, you should have a references section where you indicate
the text(s) you referred to in your essay.